Skip to main content

Full text of "North Carolina tobacco report [serial]"

See other formats


North Carolin 



">**« 








THE BULLETIN 










of the 








North Carol 


ina Department of Ag 


ricultu 


re 




L. Y 


. Ballentine, Commissioner 






N 


umber 122 




April, 


1951 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Tobacco Situation for 1951 4 

Cooperating for Better Prices 8 

North Carolina Tobacco Allotments, 1951 12 

State Summary, 1950-51 14 

North Carolina Tobacco Warehouse Sales Report for 

Season 1949-50 16 

Summary of Dealer and Warehouse Resales, 1950-51 Season 18 

North Carolina Tobacco Crops 1919-1950 19 

North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses 20 

Regulations Governing Weighing of Leaf Tobacco 

in Warehouses 27 

Regulations Governing Tobacco Curer Installations 29 

Outlets for U. S. Tobacco (Chart) Back Cover 



THE BULLETIN 

of the 

North Carolina Department of Agriculture 

L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner 



Number 122 



April, 1951 



FOREWORD 

This, the second annual issue of the Tobacco Report, 
carries information compiled and prepared by W. P. 
Hedrick and J. H. Cyrus, tobacco specialists with the 
Division of Markets, in cooperation with U.S.D.A. under 
Research and Marketing Act. 

Credit for information contained herein is due the 
Cooperative Crop Reporting Service of the North Caro- 
lina and United States Departments of Agriculture; 
the USDA Tobacco Branch; and the Field Service 
Branch of the Production and Marketing Administra- 
tion. 

Tobacco accounts for 52 per cent of the agricultural 
income of the State and furnishes employment for 
120,000 farm families in producing the crop and about 
52,000 persons in processing and manufacturing. 




Commissioner of Agriculture 



free distribution by the Tobacco Branch, Markets Division, North 
Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleieh. N. C. 



Tobacco Situation for 1951 

By W. P. Hedrick 

Tobacco Marketing Specialist 
North Carolina Department of Agriculture 

The flue-cured grower has few worries except those over which 
he has considerable control. The hurley grower is faced with a 
large surplus in stocks and a diminishing market for some of the 
products in which hurley is used. These two types of tobacco 
are important sources of income to about one million farms in 
the Southern States. The cash value of these crops in 1949 was 
778 million dollars. 

Domestic Situation — Flue-cured 

Almost every year the flue-cured tobacco crop makes some sort 
of a record. The season just ended made records with the highest 
average price ($55.05) per hundred pounds and also a record 
yield per acre (1,315) pounds. Nineteen hundred and forty-six 
was the year of the largest acreage (1,188,000), and also the 
largest production (1,352) million pounds. 

According to January 1st reports, stocks of flue-cured tobacco 
were at near record levels, 2,680 million pounds. However, do- 
mestic uses of flue-cured tobacco in manufactured products reach- 
ed an all-time high during 1950, due primarily to sharply in- 
creased cigarette consumption. Domestic manufacturers used 
722 million pounds of the flue-cured crop during 1950. 

Cigarette consumption reached an all-time high of 392 billion 
in 1950, an increase of 1.8 per cent over the previous year. The 
per capita use of cigarettes reached a peak of 2,384 pieces, or 
seven pounds of tobacco for every man, woman and child in the 
United States. The step-up in defense activities at a time when 
employment and income were already high is responsible for the 
increase. 

Export Situation — Flue-cured 

Exports to foreign countries reached 446 million pounds of 
flue-cured in 1950, a figure which has been exceeded only once — 
in 1946, when heavy exports went to replenish depleted stocks 
in foreign countries. 

Improved conditions in foreign countries and the continued 
foreign aid program contributed to our increased exports. During 



the past two years the Economic Cooperation Administration, 
in its program to assist European recovery, has made funds 
available to several countries to enable them to purchase U. S. 
flue-cured tobacco. Western European countries took about 30 
per cent of the flue-cured tobacco exported prior to World War 
II. The people of Western Europe regard cigarettes as an im- 
portant item in their standard of living, but per capita con- 
sumption is now very low due to economic conditions. Most 
European countries are not able to grow any sizeable quantity 
of tobacco due to unsuitable soil and climate. 

Our largest flue-cured customer, the United Kingdom, bought 
about 135 million pounds out of the 1950 crop, and has on hand 
stocks sufficient for about one year. 

Since the war a new and important customer has entered our 
flue-cured market— Western Germany. In the short space of five 




Flue-Cured tobacco exports totaled 446,000,000 pounds last year. These 
may increase in 1951. 



years Western Germany has become our second best customer 
of flue-cured. During 1950 about 45 million pounds were used 
by manufacturers in this area. Western Germans prefer blended 
American type cigarettes. To meet this preference their manu- 
facturers bartered for additional shipments of flue-cured leaf 
besides those received through ECA arrangements. Thus, the 
increased use of U. S. flue-cured tobacco in Western Germany 
since the end of the war has more than offset the losses in 
exports to Communist China. 

The one dark spot in the picture as far as manufacturers are 
concerned is the export of manufactured products. During 1949 
approximately 25 billion cigarettes were exported. The Philip- 
pine Republic was our principal foreign customer after the war, 
but in 1950 this country placed import restrictions on manufac- 
tured products and reduced imports to about 5 billion cigarettes. 

The Domestic Outlook 

The domestic demand for cigarette tobacco is expected to be 
strong in 1951, in spite of an advance in cigarette prices. Whole- 
sale and retail prices were advanced in July, 1950. Manufacturers 
raised their prices 25 cents per thousand cigarettes, while re- 
tailers generally went up one cent per package. It is estimated 
that cigarettes will cost the American consumers about 125 
million dollars more per year. These price raises should enable 
the manufacturers to pay the growers as much or more for 
cigarette tobacco in the 1951 crop. The high levels of employment 
and consumer incomes in prospect for 1951 are major factors 
favoring some increase in cigarette consumption. 

The quantities of flue-cured placed under government loan 
during the 1950 season were smaller than in previous years and 
relatively little remains in loan stock. The Flue-cured Tobacco 
Stabilization Corporation has on hand about 80 million pounds. 
This will probably be sold before the markets open in July. 

Export Outlook for Flue-cured 

Exports are expected to hold at present levels or possibly in- 
crease some from the 446 million pounds exported last year. Low 
stocks in the United Kingdom means the British should be back 
strong during the 1951 season. This will bolster the price of many 
grades of export type leaf that suffered during the 1950 season. 

Another bright spot in the export picture for 1951 is the fact 
that Japan, another of our' pre-war customers, may be back 



in the flue-cured market. The Japanese monopoly has indicated 
they may use some American flue-cured from the 1951 crop. 
Before the war, the Japanese bought a sizeable quantity of high 
quality cutter tobacco. 

The exports of cigarettes should show a sizeable increase due 
to shipments to the Armed Forces overseas. 

Burley Situation and Outlook 

Burley growers have improved their situation during the past 
year by reducing their planted acreage 10 per cent. The 1950 
crop is estimated at 496 million pounds, about 60 million less 
than was produced in 1949. Yields per acre are expected to be 
slightly below average except in North Carolina and Virginia. 
The price support for the 1950 burley crop was above that 
of the previous season. Burley parity was 50.8 cents per pound, 
with a 90 per cent support price of 45.6 cents per pound. Sales 
indicate average prices of $49.00 per hundred pounds. The price 
would probably have been much better were it not for the fact 
that 143 million pounds remained unsold in the Burley stabiliza- 
tion pool. 

Burley growers are almost entirely dependent upon the domes- 
tic market for the use of their tobacco in cigarettes, smoking 
and chewing products. Burley has never entered the export trade 
as extensively as has flue-cured. During 1950 only 40 million 
pounds were sent abroad. The total uses of burley during 1950 
were about 535 million pounds, or slightly more than was used 
in 1949. Cigarette consumption accounted for most of the in- 
crease. Burley is used extensively in smoking and chewing to- 
bacco and both of these products have been decreasing in popu- 
larity in the past few years. Therefore, growers should plant 
those varieties of burley that produce the highest percentage 
of thin, straw colored tobacco usable in cigarette manufacture. 
The outlook for the continued prosperity of the burley grower 
depends on the far-sighted manner in which the acreage control 
program is handled and on increased domestic consumption of 
tobacco products. 



Cooperating for Better Prices 

By J. H. Cyrus 

Tobacco Marketing Specialist 

North Carolina Department of Agriculture 

The working relationship between the U.S.D.A. Tobacco In- 
spection Service and the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabili- 
zation Corporation has produced remarkable results in bringing 
about stabilized prices in the marketing of flue-cured tobacco, 
and has put many thousands of dollars into the tobacco farmer's 
pocket. Contrary to the thinking of some people, these two agen- 
cies are organized independently of each other, but they work 
hand in hand to make possible the price support loan program 
which guarantees the workers 90 per cent of parity. 

Tobacco Inspection or Grading Service is a Federal Organi- 
zation, operating under the Production and Marketing Admin- 
istration of the U. S. Department of Agriculture with a Tobacco 
Branch office located in Raleigh. The Flue-cured Tobacco Co- 
operative Stabilization Corporation is a Farmer Organization, 
operating under North Carolina's cooperative laws, and controlled 
by the common stockholders who are growers in the flue-cured 
tobacco areas. The members of this organization established 
their headquarters in Raleigh. 

The inspection of flue-cured tobacco according to standard 
grades was inaugurated in 1929 by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture as an aid to growers in marketing their crops. In 
the beginning a small fee was charged for the inspection service, 
but the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1935 made it possible to put 
it at the disposal of the growers without charge when approved 
by a two-thirds majority in a referendum. 

Through the provisions of this Act, the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, cooperating with the N. C. Department of Agricul- 
ture and other agencies, has made tobacco inspection service and 
tobacco price reports available to growers on all designated 
markets. The purpose of tobacco grading and the market news 
service is to provide a measuring stick for quality and price in 
order that the growers may protect themselves against loss in 
the sales of their tobacco. 

While the inspection and grading service has been in operation 
for 21 years, the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization 



Corporation is relatively new. It was organized on June 1, 1946, 
by farm leaders in flue-cured areas in cooperation with officials of 
the Tobacco Branch of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Plans 
were made to start operating at the beginning of the 1947 
marketing season; but early in the 1946 season falling prices 
in lower grades caused about 11 per cent of the tobacco to sell 
below the 90 per cent of parity price. So, to protect growers 
against undue losses, the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabili- 
zation Corporation went into operation on August 12, 1946, and 
it was through this organization that the Commodity Credit 
Corporation price support loan program was made available to 

growers. 

The Stabilization corporation is needed to perform several func- 
tions which cannot be handled by the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion as they are in the case of some other commodities. First of 
all, the C.C.C. can make loans only on commodities which are in 
a "unit volume," or collateral position. A hogshead is considered 
a unit volume of tobacco; but in preparing tobacco for market 
each individual farmer has to separate his crop into a number of 




Tobacco received under loan is stored by commercial facilities on a con- 
tract basis, and is sold by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization 
Corporation. 



small lots to meet the buyers' demand. These separations are 
made according to groups, qualities and colors, and the average 
farmer has only a small volume of each different grade. Thus, in 
order to make individual lots of tobacco eligible for C.C.C. loans, 
the Stabilization corporation assumes responsibility for assem- 
bling the tobacco into unit volumes of hogsheads according to 
groups, qualities and colors to bring it into a collateral position. 

A schedule of loan values for U. S. standard grades is estab- 
lished each year. This is done in a joint meeting of the U. S. 
Tobacco Branch, which represents C.C.C, and the Flue-cured 
Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation with representa- 
tives present from the Farm Bureau, the Grange, the Bright 
Belt Warehouse Association, Tobacco Leaf Dealer Exporters As- 
sociation, and all the state P.M.A. offices in the flue-cured area. 
Last year Tobacco Associates, Inc., was also represented. The 
loan value on each standard grade of tobacco is based on 90 per 
cent of parity as of June 15 prior to the opening of the marketing 
season, with attention given to quality, use and previous averages 
of the individual grades. Thus, through cooperation and agree- 
ment among all parties represented, the official schedule of loan 
values by U. S. standard grades is established. 

When the auction bids are not above the established loan level, 
the growers may take advantage of the support price through a 
non-recourse loan. In this procedure the warehouseman advances 
the grower the amount .of the loan, and is reimbursed by the 
Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation with 
funds borrowed through contractual arrangement from the Com- 
modity Credit Corporation. In all cases, only the original growers 
who have not over-planted their acreage allotments are eligible 
for loans. 

Tobacco received under loan is dried, packed in hogsheads and 
stored in commercial facilities on a contract basis. It is later sold 
by the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation 
after all growers have completed marketing the current crop. 
When all the tobacco taken by Stabilization in any one marketing 
year is sold, the receipts in excess of loans and cost of operations 
are pro-rated on a dollar value basis to growers who placed their 
tobacco under loan. 

Tobacco received from the 1946 crop by Stabilization was sold 
at a net gain of $67,916.08. The Board of Directors resolved to 
set this aside as a reserve for loss. The 1947 crop was sold at a net 

10 



gain of $4,195,416.15 and this, less a small reserve fund, has been 
distributed to growers who participated in the 1947 crop opera- 
tions. 

The following table shows the amount and percentages of pro- 
ducers' tobacco received by the Stabilization corporation from 
each belt during the 1950 marketing season. 

Percentage 
Producers" Sales Stabilization Stabilization 

Belt Type (Lbs.) Receipts (Lbs.) Received 

nl . R „ 1t HA 289,601.482 35.584.844 12.28 

2rAM. Lit 11B 157.641,536 12.357.976 7.84 

Km . ■::.■ f «5:o56.236 .7,888.592 

G %lfl ' 1,250,701,568 77,637,772 6.20 



Total 



The success of the flue-cured tobacco program, which is unique 
among the farm programs of the nation, can be very closely con- 
nected with the working relations and services rendered by the 
U.S.D.A. Tobacco Inspection Service and the Flue-Cured Tobacco 
Cooperative Stabilization Corporation in cooperation with other 
State and Federal agencies. Through the combined efforts of all 
these agencies, the flue-cured tobacco program has been developed 
into one of the few self-supporting farm programs in the nation. 



11 



North Carolina Tobacco Allotments — 1951 1 
Flue-Cured 

County No. Farms! Acres 1 

Alamance i, 320 7,094.8 

Alexander ^ 67 ■ 2.155.8 

AnBon _ 211 523.0 

Beaufort 2.644 14.175.2 

2f r ' le 1.723 8.441.7 

5 laden . 3.473 10.940.1 

Brunswick i, 762 4.780.0 

Burke • 1 3 

Caswell 247 696!il 

Camden 2 57 

Carteret ..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 439 I,989.*9 

C aaw ell 1.926 13,726.3 

Catawba 5 g j 

Chatham \\ 1,177 4,545^ 

Chowan 186 801.6 

Cleveland i 22 

Columbus ! i 5,497 24,066.'9 

Craven 1,886 12,693.2 

Cumberland 2,467 7.683.8 

Currituck 1 59 

Davidson 1,694 5,139!l 

Davie 907 2,059.2 

Duplin 4,845 22,745.2 

Durham . 1,063 5,866.6 

Edgecombe 1,693 17,171.1 

Forsyth 2,211 ' 7,788.6 

Franklin 2,849 17,013.4 

Gaston - 4 7.4 

Gates 115 3 96 .'7 

Granville 2,113 19,834.5 

Greene 1,147 , 17,924.1 

Guilford 3,167 13,925.1 

Halifax 2,140 8,695.4 

Harnett 3,837 21,329.9 

Hertford 1,052 4,818.3 

H°ke 994 4.127.0 

Hyde 8 9.4 

Iredell 805 1.915.6 

Johnston 5,924 33,681.7 

Jones 940 8.095.3 

Lee 1,348 6.087.9 

Lenoir 1,911 20.769.9 

Mart'" 1,648 12,678.3 

Mecklenburg 11 5g 

Montgomery 401 1.356!7 

Moore 1,535 6.714.0 

Nash 3,011 27.136.2 

New Hanover 86 252 7 

Northampton 180 608.6 

Onslow 1,876 9.284.7 

Orange 929 5.006.8 

Pamlico 448 1 .697.0 

Pasquotank 1 17 

Pender 1,596 4.68L0 

Person 1,743 1 4.294.4 

Pitt 2,674 37,762.6 

Randolph 1,581 5.003.9 

Richmond 961 2,928.4 

Robeson 4,904 30,440.7 

Rockingham 3,026 19.527.2 

Rowan 33 80.4 

Sampson 5,767 22.561.9 

Scotland 474 1,629 1 

Stokes 2,749 17.121.1 

Surry 3,166 16.288.7 

Tyrrell 1 .8 

Vance 1,637 12.129.1 

Wake 3,940 28,911.1 

Warren 1,944 9.105.8 

Washington 286 1 ,422.0 

Wayne 2,984 21,673.7 

Wilkes 937 2,264.2 

Wilson 2,178 26,067.3 

V»dkin 2,669 12.079.3 

Totals 121.907 703.249.5 

12 



Burley 

County No - Farn,8l! Acres 2 

1 °- 9 

Alamance * - 

Alexander ' 

Allegany »3 22- 

Ashe l.« 66 l * ' 

185 111.7 

Avery ' 2 812 2,076.9 

Buncombe "• „ _ 

Burke 12 B 

Caldwell 26 ' 

Cherokee 33 

Clay ... 14 * 18 

Cleveland ° 65 

David8on i 0.9 

Durham . o 

Gaston 58g 327'.0 

Graham .„„ n 

„ . 1,880 1,429.9 

Haywo0d 79 46.3 

Henderson g 

Irede11 214 104-0 

Jackson .... 2g0 

McDowell 147 48.3 

Macon 3 114 3,689.0 

Madison ■ ul 

Mecklenburg ggo M7 2 

Mitchell 1 

Polk • 2 .' 

. 1 0.5 

Randolph 287 

RutherfOTd ■ 1M 40.8 

2™"" ,-■■•. 58 41.1 

Transylvania ■■■.■• 9506 

Watauga ^ 4 ? 

* nkes :::' ^ m»m 

Yancey , ' 

16 206 12,565.2 

Totals .lo.iuo 

i Source: U. S. Production and Marketing Administration. 
= Does not include new growers for 1951. ,.,n«„„.i ;„ 

3 At the time this Bulletin went to press a 5 per cent additional m 
acretge had b"en announced but had not been allocated to the connt.es. 



13 



State Summary— 1950-51 

A strong demand and a good quality 1950 crop of flue-cured 
tobacco resulted in the largest amount of money ever paid North 
Carolina growers for their golden leaf. 

The 44 flue-cured markets operating in North Carolina sold 
836,400,256 pounds of producers' tobacco for $469,075,161, giving 
the growers a record high average of $56.08 per hundred pounds. 
This was $7.20 above the previous year's average of $48.88 per 
hundred for 720,205,501 pounds of producers' tobacco. 

The North Carolina Border Belt (Type 13) opened the 1950 
season on August 1 and operated for 53 days. Sales were light 
for the first two weeks due to a late maturing crop which kept 
growers too busy harvesting and curing to prepare tobacco for 
market; but by the third week the volume of offerings was about 
normal. Producers' sales on the eight Border Belt markets in 
North Carolina totaled 140,794,849 pounds, and averaged $56.99 
per hundred pounds, the highest average price on record for that 
type. In 1949 the Border Belt sold 132,676.010 pounds for growers 
at an average price of $49.88 per hundred pounds. Final sales for 
the season were held at Fairmont on October 19. 

Type 12, Eastern Belt markets began their 1950 season on 
August 21 after being delayed one selling day due to continued 
heavy sales on the Georgia-Florida markets. Averages in this belt 
reached their season peak during the first two weeks of auctions. 
After that prices eased lower as the season progressed. Seventeen 
markets in this belt sold 405,056,236 pounds of tobacco for grow- 
ers at an average price of $56.89 per hundred pounds. Compara- 
tive figures for the preceding year show that producers sold 
363,414,192 pounds for an average of $49.28 per hundred. The 
season of 61 selling days ended on November 17 with final sales 
at Rocky Mount and Wilson. 

The five Sandhill markets of the Middle Belt (Type 11B) 
opened on August 28 with all companies represented, except on 
the Ellerbe market, where only one major company was repre- 
sented. The remaining five markets in the Middle Belt opened on 
August 31. Growers received $89,114,600 for 157,641,536 pounds 
of tobacco sold during the season, averaging $56.53 per hundred 
pounds. During the 1949 season producers averaged $48.46 per 
hundred for 122,517,721 pounds sold. The season which ended 

14 



on November 21, lasted 57 days, but above 90 per cent of the crop 
had passed into the hands of buyers after 40 days of activity. 

Old Belt markets (Type 11A) opened September 14 for the 
1950 season with some dissatisfaction among growers over prices 
received; however, this condition soon adjusted itself and sales 
on most markets were blocked during the remainder of the first 
month. The general market average followed a downward trend 
throughout the season as production figures for Type 11 steadily 
rose from the estimate of 292 million pounds to 330 million pounds 
by the end of the season. The nine North Carolina Old Belt 
markets sold 132,907,635 pounds of tobacco for growers, paying 
them $69,260,254, or an average of $52.11 per hundred pounds 
thus, topping the 1949 average of $46.12 by $5.99. Producers sold 
only 101,597,578 pounds in 1949 for $46,855,950. The regular 
sales, which ran for 63 days, ended on December 15. However, 
Winston-Salem held a clean-up sale on December 20. 

A marketing holiday of four scheduled selling days was held 
September 21, 22, 25, and 26. This holiday was proclaimed because 
of congested conditions in redrying plants. When the markets 
re-opened after the holiday several adjustments in daily sales 
hours were made from time to time to prevent the congestion 
from recurring in plants. 

Sales of Burley, Type 31, began November 29, 1950, on North 
Carolina markets at Asheville, Boone and West Jefferson. The 
opening was delayed one day because of inclement weather. Vol- 
ume offered on opening day filled the warehouses, but deliveries 
were slower thereafter due to unsuitable conditions for preparing 
tobacco for market. Producers sold 12,551,631 pounds of Burley 
tobacco on North Carolina markets for $6,449,170, averaging 
$51 38 per hundred pounds, which is slightly higher than average 
prices made in other Burley Belts. In the 1949-50 season the three 
North Carolina markets sold 13,650,674 pounds for growers at an 
average of $43.37 per hundred pounds. Sales were completed for 
the season at Boone and West Jefferson on January 19, and at 
Asheville on January 26, thus, concluding the 1950-51 tobacco 
marketing season in North Carolina, 



15 









£ 5 












c 




c 


'5 


c 
1 


2 






C 

1 




| 

1 







<5afcoiiZ(SKoihS^S^ 



M S v i 2 



::::::: | 






< sa fe 



Summary of Dealer and Warehouse Resales — 1950-1951 Season 



RESALES 




POUNDS 






DOLLARS 




Dealer 


Warehouse 


Total 


Dealer 


Warehouse 


Total 



N. C. Border Belt Type 13 
6.492,082 8,846.998 15.339,030 $2,994,071 $4,772.67-1 

N. C. Eastern Belt Type 12 

13.815.430 29.375,369 43.190,799 6,660.983 16.097.945 



N. C. Middle Belt Type 11B 

7,403,757 12.867,549 2,639.537 



3.997.612 6.637.149 



N. C. Old Belt Type 11 A 

7.989,683 13.805,603 2.787.869 4.051.095 

N. C. Burley Belt Type 31 

1,440,626 3,248.802 905,343 724.815 



S. C. Type 13 

8.147,692 16,487,432 4.013,272 



4.341.608 8,354.880 



Georgia Type 11 

6,737.638 14,906,394 3,825.927 3.217,649 

Florida Type 14 

1.704.686 

Virginia Type 11A 
11,235,443 



Total Sales in Flue-Cured Area 1950-51 



Stat. 


Producers* 


Sales 


Gross 


Sales 




Pounds 


Ave. Price 


Pounds 


Ave. Price 


N. C 

Va 

S. C 

Ga 


836,400.266 

156,693,847 

129.767.485 


$56.08 
65.17 
54.88 
47.89 
61.82 

56.06 


921,603.237 
167.929.290 
146.244.917 
128.983,223 
16,477.663 


$56.66 
54.83 
54.41 


Fla 












Total 


. 1,260,701.668 


1,380,238.230 


54.64 



18 



North Carolina Tobacco Crops 1919-1950' 



Year 


No. Acres 


Yield Per 

Acre 
(Pounds) 


Production 
(1000 lbs.) 


Value 
(1000 Dollars) 


Average 
Price 






FLUE-CURED 






1919 


521.500 


612 


319,276 


$157,340 


$49.30 


1920 


621.900 


681 


423,703 


88.271 


20.80 


1921 


414.900 


594 


246.540 


60.402 


24.60 


1922 


444.000 


611 


271.170 


74,572 


27.60 


1923 


544.300 


728 


396.354 


81,998 


20.70 


1924 


473,500 


585 


276,819 


62,597 


22.60 


1925 


536.200 


696 


373,352 


83,756 


22.40 


1926 


546,700 


092 


378,274 


96.762 


25.60 


1927 


639,600 


755 


482,982 


100,414 


20.80 


1928 


712,400 


692 


493,132 


93,450 


19.00 


1929 


729,300 


665 


484,630 


89,470 


18.60 


1930 


768,000 


757 


681,200 


74,733 


12.90 


1931 


688,500 


692 


476,382 


42,024 


8.80 


1932 


462,600 


624 


288,750 


34,949 


12.10 


1933 


667,800 


794 


530,133 


85,530 


16.10 


1934 


486,500 


847 


412,055 


117,999 


28.60 


1935 


612.500 


935 


572.625 


116,418 


20.30 


1936 


591.000 


765 


451,975 


101,856 


22.50 


1937 


675.000 


883 


595,815 


143,058 


24.00 


1938 


603,500 


844 


509.470 


115,428 


22,70 


1939 


843,000 


964 


812,540 


123.893 


15.20 


1940 


498.000 


1,038 


516,835 


85,792 


16.60 


1941 


488,000 


928 


452,825 


132,291 


29.20 


1942 


539,000 


1,062 


566,810 


221.538 


39.10 


1943 


680,000 


935 


542,200 


219,074 


40.40 


1944 


684,000 


1,077 


736,990 


317.628 


43.10 


1946 


722,000 


1,100 


794,310 


349,148 


44.00 


1946 


802,000 


1,138 


912,970 


451,639 


49.50 


1947 


783,000 


1,139 


892,206 


374,513 


42.00 


1948 


594,000 


1,239 


739,380 


368,040 


49.80 


1949 


621,000 


1,178 


731,530 


352,685 


48.20 


1960 


636,000 


1,348 
BUKLEY 


857,150 
LIGHT AIR-CURED 


473, 000** 


55.50*' 


1934 


5,500 


870 


4,785 


$ 809 


17.50 


1936 


5,200 


926 


4.810 


1.025 


21.30 


1936 


6,000 


900 


5.400 


2,095 


38.80 


1937 


9,000 


975 


8,776 


1,878 


21.40 


1938 


8,600 


900 


7,740 


1.308 


16.90 


1939 


8,100 


1,070 


8,667 


1,447 


16.70 


1940 


6,600 


1,050 


6,825 


1,242 


18.20 


1941 


6,200 


1,075 


6,665 


2,093 


31.40 


1942 


6,600 


1,160 


7,590 


3,211 


42.30 


1943 


8.500 


1,225 


10,412 


5.102 


49.00 


1944 


12,000 


1.390 


16,680 


8,157 


48.90 


1945 


13,000 


1,500 


19,500 


7,468 


38.30 


1946 


9,800 


1,475 


14,456 


5,999 


41.50 


1947 


9,600 


1.560 


14,976 


6,335 


42.30 


1948 


10,300 


1,680 


17.304 


8.012 


46.30 


1949 


10,800 


1,440 


16,652 


6.760 


43.40 


I960** 


10,000 


1,600 


16,000 


8.200** 


51.00< 



•Source: N. C. and U.S.D.A. Crop Reporting Service. 

• Estimate of Division of Markets based on Producers Sales. 



19 



North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses, 
Floor Space and Operators by Belts and Markets — 1950 

N. C. BORDER BELT '**■ 

Chadourn (One set buyers) 175,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Carters No. 1 & 2— A. A. Tilley, W. F. Rogers 
Meyers— J. H. Harper, J. D. Hendley 
New Brick— W. C. Coates & Son 

Clarkton (one set buyers) 231,500 sq. ft. floor space 
Banners — B. F. Rivenbark, J. H. Bryant 
Bright Leaf— B. F. Rivenbark, J. H. Bryant 
Brick— O. L. Littleton •"■ 

Big L — O. L. Littleton 

Big 5— H. M. Clark, M. L. Fisher, E. L. Dudley 
New Bladen— H. M. Clark, M. L. Fisher, E. L. Dudley 

Fair Bluff (one set buyers) 125,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Powell & Dixie— A. H., A. H. Jr., B. A. Powell, A. L. Carver 
Planters No. 1 & 2— N. N. Love, W. M. Talley, Carl Mears 

Fairmont (four sets buyers) 1,206,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Big 5— E. J. Chambers, A. 0. Reeves, A. E. Garrett, M. C. Yarboro 
Robeson County— E. J. Chambers, A. O. Reeves, A. E. Garrett, M. C. 

Yarboro 
Peoples— E. J. Chambers, A. O. Reeves, A. E. Garrett, M. C. Yarboro 
Davis— F. A. Davis, Harry and Jack Mitchell 
Davis-Mitchell — F. A. Davis, Harry and Jack Mitchell 
Big Brick— F. P. Joyce, J. A. Pell 
Farmers — F. P. Joyce, J. A. Pell 
Dixie— E. H. Frye, J. W. and J. M. Holliday 
Frye No. 1 and 2— E. H. Frye. J. W. and J. M. Holliday 
Holliday— E. H. Frye, J. W. and J. M. Holliday 
Planters No. 1 and 2— N. Tuck, Alley and W. L. Best, M. Daniel, G. R. 

Royster 
Square Deal No. 1 and 2 — W. G. Bassett 
Star-Carolina No. 1 and 2— Dick Booker, C. A. Blankenship, Bill Sheets. 

A. A. Fowler 
Twin State— P. R. Floyd, Jr., R. J. Harris, Paul Wilson 

Fayetteville (one set buyers) 340,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Big Farmers— R. H. Barbour, S. T. Proctor, P. Campbell 
Wellons — Joe W. Stephenson, J. C. Adams 

Lumberton (three sets buyers) 581,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Britts— J. R. Musgrave, W. and C. Chaffin, J. S. Walden, Jr. 
Carolina No. 1 and 2— M. A. Roycroft, J. E. Johnson, J. L. Townsend 
Dixie— N. A. McKeithan, Jr., J. A. Kinlaw, Joe Sharp, E. K. Biggs 
Hedgepeth No. 2— R. A. Hedgepeth, J. K. Roycroft, H. H. Hicks, R. L. 

Rollins 
Liberty— R. E. Wilkens, F. S. White, R. H, Liveomore, Jr. . 
Smiths No. 1 and 2— T. J. Smith, Paul Sands, H. P. Allen 

20 



Tabor City (one set buyers) 194,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Carolina-Farmers— R. C, R. C, Jr.. and Joe Coleman, Mrs. Harriet 

Sikes 
Garrells— G. R. and C. E. Walden 
Planters — Don Watson, Mgr. 

Whiteville (three sets buyers) 580,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Brooks — L. H. and Blair Motley 
Motley— L. H. and Blair Motley 
Crutchfield— Gaither and Raymond Crutchfield 
Lea's No. 1 — Wm. Townes Lea 
Moores — A. H. Moore 
Nelson's — John H. Nelson 

Perkins-Newman— H. L. and J. W. Perkins, N. C. Newman 
Planters No. 1 and 2— A. O. King, Jr., J. W. Peay 
Tuggles— A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal 
Farmers — A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal 

EASTERN BELT 

Ahoskie (one set buyers) 113,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Basnight No. 1 and 2 — Lyman Wilkens, H. Veacey 
Farmers No. 1 and 2— W. D. Odom, E. R. Evans 

Clinton (one set buyers) 373,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Bass Whse.— Taft Bass 

Big Sampson— Z. D. WcWhorter, Ennis Bass, G. S. Strickland 
Carolina— Z. D. McWhorter, Ennis Bass, G. S. Strickland 
Center Brick — Guy R. Ross 
Ross No. 2— Guy R. Ross 
Farmers— H. and Joe Carter, A. F. Lockamy, C. Wiggans, John Chestnut 

Dunn (one set buyers) 351,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Big 4 Whse.— Buck and Hank Currin, Jack Calhoun, Tom Smothers 
Farmers — D. W. Worthington, J. R. Owens 
Growers — D. W. Worthington, J. R. Owens 

Farmville (two sets buyers) 408,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Bell's— L. R. Bell and Sons, C. C. Ivey and Bros. 
Farmers — Grover Webb, John Fountain 
Fountain's — Grover Webb, John Fountain 
Monks No. 1 and 2— J. Y. Monk, R. D. Rouse, J. C. Carlton 
Planters— M. J. Moye. C. C. Harris, Chester Worthington 

Goldsboro (one set buyers) 244,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Carolina— S. G. Best, Bruce Smith, J. I. Musgrave 
Farmers No. 1 and 2— S. B. Hill, Carl Holloman, M. W. Rouse, Harold 

Benton 
Tin — Jim Hopewell, Paul Bridgers, R. Smith, J. B. Scott 
Victory— Jim Hopewell, Paul Bridgers, R. Smith, J. B. Scott 

Greenville (five sets buyers) 1,478,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Cannon — W. T. Cannon, Carlton Dail 

21 



Center Brick — M. D. Lassiter 

Dixie — M. D. Lassiter 

Farmers — J. A. Tripp and Sons 

Growers — Woodrow Worthington 

Harris Rogers — R. E. Rogers 

Keel's Coop. — J. T. Keel, Mgr. 

McGowans — C. H. McGowan 

Mortons — W. Z. Morton 

Empire — M. Z. Morton 

New Carolina No. 1 and 2— Floyd McGowan, L. W. Edwards 

Star No. 1 and 2— B. B. Suggs. G. V. Smith 

Gold Leaf— B. B. Suggs. G. V. Smith 

Victory — Guy and H. Forbes, O. L. Joyner, Jr. 

Kinston (four sets buyers) 1,336,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Brooks— J. R., J. R., Jr., and Fred Brooks 
Central — J. E. Jones, C. W. Wooten 
Eagle — Percy Holden, Mgr. 
New Carolina — Percy Holden, Mgr. 
Farmers — J. T. Jenkins, L. E. Pollock 
Kinston Coop. — G. F. Loftin, Pres. 
Knott Whse., Inc.— K. W. Loftin, Mgr. 
Knotts New— H. G. Knott, W. E. Brewer 
New Dixie — W. M. Wickham 
Planters — L. O. Stokes, Mgr. 
Sheppards No. 1 and 2 — R. E. Sheppard 
Tapps— H. F. Laws 
The Star Whse.— C. J. Herring 

Robersonville (one set buyers) 190,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Adkins and Bailey — J. H. Gray and Mayo Little, Mgrs. 
New Red Front — J. H. Gray and Mayo Little, Mgrs. 
Planters Whse.— H. T. Highsmith, E. G. Anderson 

Rocky Mount (four sets buyers) 965,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Cobb and Foxhall No. 1 and 2 — W. E. Cobb, H. P. Foxhall 
Mangum No. 1 — Roy M. Phelps 
Planters No. 1, 2 and 3— Bernard Faulkner 
Smith No. 1 and 2 — James D. Smith 
Works Whse.— R. J. Works and Son 
Easley Whse. Co., Inc.— H. A. Easley, Mgr. 
Fenners No. 1 and 2 — J. B. Fenner 
Farmers — T. A. Williams 

Smithfield (two sets buyers) 585,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Big Planters, Inc.— W. A. Carter, Mgr. 
Farmers— N. L. Daughtery, G. G. Adams, W. L. Kennedy 
Gold Leaf — R. A. Pearce 
Dixie Growers — R. A. Pearce 
Little Dixie — Jack Broadhurst 
Perkins Riverside — N. L. Perkins 
Wallace No. 1, 2 and 3— Lawrance, Dixon, Holton Wallace 

22 



Tarboro (one set buyers) 135,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Clarks No. 1 and 2— H. I. Johnson, S. A. McConkey 

Farmers No. 1 and 2— W. L. House, J. P. Bunn, W. A. Gardner 

Victory No. 1 and 2— W. E. Simmons, C. Weeks, J. and W. L. Leggett 

Wallace (one set buyers) 320,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Blanchard and Farrior— O. C. Blanchard, W. H. Farrior 
Hussey No. 1 and 3— J. H. Bryant, G. Bennett, W. L. Hussey 

Washington (one set buyers) 203,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Gravely's — H. C. Gravely and Sons 
Knotts— L. E. Knott 
Sermons No. 1 and 2— W. J. Sermons, J. E. Roberson 

Wendell (two sets buyers) 232,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Banners No. 1 and 2— F. Harris, J. W. Dale, Jr., I. B. Medlin 

Farmers — L. R. Clark and Son 

Northside— G. Dean, E. H. Price 

Planters — J. I. Lynch 

Producers Coop. — Ronald Hocutt, Mgr. 

Star A and B— J. S. Benard, C. Walker 

Wilson (five sets buyers) 1,532,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Banner — A. W. Fleming and Sons 
Big Dixie— E. B. Hicks, R. P. Dew, W. C. Thompson 
Big Star — J. J. Gibbons 
Carolina— G. L. Wainwright 
Wainwright— G. L. Wainwright 

Center Brick No. 1, 2 and 3— Cozart and Eagles Company 
W. B. Clark and Sons 
Farmers — S. Grady Dean 
Growers Coop.— S. E. Griffin, Mgr. 
New Planter— R. T. Smith, B. W. Can- 
Smith Whse., Inc., A, B and C— H. H. Harris, Jr., Mgr. 
Watson No. 1, 2 and 3— H. W. and S. W. Anderson 

Williamston (one set buyers) 180,000 sq. ft. floor space 

New Carolina— S. C. Griffin, H. L. Barnhill, J. B. Taylor, E. Lilley 
New Farmers— S. C. Griffin, H. L. Barnhill, J. B. Taylor, E. Lilley 
Planters— C. U. and J. R. Rogers, J. W. Gurkin, C. Langley 
Roanoke-Dixie— C. U. and J. R. Rogers, J. W. Gurkin, C. Langley 

Windsor (did not have full set buyers) 45,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Farmers No. 1 and 2— S. F. and J. F. Hick 

MIDDLE BELT 

Aberdeen (one set buyers) 78,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Aberdeen— R. W. Haney 
New Aberdeen— R. W. Haney 
Planters— Gene Maynard, Bill Maurer, Chester Luxon 



23 



Carthage (one set buyers) 345,000 sq. ft. floor space 
McConnells — W. M. Carter 
Smothers No. 1 and 2— H. P. and R. D. Smothers 

Durham (three sets buyers) 521,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Liberty — Walker and Johnstone, Clyde Roberts 
Mangum— S. T. and S. C. Mangum, I. E. Satterfield 
Planters— J. M. Talley 

Roycroft— H. T., M. A. and J. K. Roycroft, J. C. Currin 
Star— C. H. and W. W. Cozart, W. L. Currin, A. L. Carver 
Star Brick— C. H. and W. W. Cozart. W. L. Currin, A. L. Carver 

Ellerbe (did not have full set buyers) 65,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Farmers — Bill Simpson, Geo. Mabe 
Richmond County— H. G. Perry, Joe Wallace, Joe Bryant, H. A. Fagg 

Fuquay-Varlna (two sets buyers) 398,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Centeral No. 1 and 2— S. T. Proctor, P. L. Campbell, R. H. Barbour 

New Deal — King Roberts, E. E. Clayton 

Planters— W. M., R. B., A. L. Talley 

Talley Bros.— W. M., R. B., A. L. Talley 

Southside — J. C. Adams, J. W. Stephenson 

Varina-Brick — J. C. Adams, J. W. Stephenson 

Henderson (two sets buyers) 394,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Banners— C. J. Fleming, C. B. Turner, E. C. Huff, L. B. Wilkinson 

Carolina— W. B. Daniel, F. S. Royster, A. H. Moore 

Coopers— W. B. Daniel, F. S. Royster, A. H. Moore 

Farmers — W. J. Alston 

Planters— W. J. Alston 

High Price— C. J. Fleming, C. B. Turner, E. C. Hugg, L. B. Wilkinson 

Liberty — Geo. T. Robertson 

Louisburg (one set buyers) 74,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Planters— A. N. Wilson, S. T. and Bryant Cottrell 
Southside — Charlie Ford 
Union — G. C. Harris, N. F. Freeman 

Oxford (two sets buyers) 351,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Banner — W. L. Mitchell 
Mitchell— W. L. Mitchell 

Farmers— S. T. Currin, B. T. Williams, Julian Adcock 
Mangum— S. T. Currin, B. T. Williams, Julian Adcock 
Fleming No. 1 and 2— G. B. Watkins, D. T. Currin, H. G. Taylor 
Planters— C. R., J. R., and S. J. Watkins 
Johnson— C. R., J. R., and S. J. Watkins 
Owen No. 1 and 2— J. S. Watkins, L. Gregory 

Sanford (one set buyers) 156,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Big Sanford— Joe M. Wilkens, G. T. Hancock 
Wilkens — Joe M. Wilkens, G. T. Hancock 
Farmer Flag— C. W. Puckett, F. L. McCollum 
Wood 3 W No. 1 and 2— W. F.Wood 

24 



Warrenton (one set buyers) 97,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Boyd's— W. P. Burwell 
Center— R. K. Carroll 
Currin's— D. G. Currin 
Farmers — E. G. Tarwater 

OLD BELT 

Burlington (one set buyers) 96,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Carolina— R. D. Tickle, H. L. Perkins, J. G. McCray 
Coble— N. C. Newman, Elton Hughes, H. L. Johnson 
Farmers— O. H. King, C. R. McCauley, R. W. Rainery 

Greensboro (did not have full set buyers) 158,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Greensboro Tob. Whse. Co.— R. C. Coleman, Mgr. 
Guilford County Tob. Whse, Co.— J. R. Pell, Mgr. 

Madison (one set buyers) 124,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Big Star— R. A. Cardwell, R. T. Chilton, S. F. Webster 
- New Brick— R. A. Cardwell, R. T. Chilton, S. F. Webster 
Carolina — T. D. Preston, R. G. Angell 
Planters— J. R. Price, W. S. Smith, H. A. Fagg 
Sharpe and Smith— J. R. Price, W. S. Smith, H. A. Fagg 

Mebane (one set buyers) 105,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Farmers — J. T. Hensley and Sons 

Piedmont— J. F. McCauley, I. C. Farabow, J. D. Wood 
Planters— W. J. Dillard, J. B. Keck, J. H. Warren 

Mt. Airy (one set buyers) 158,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Liberty— R. F. and Fox Nichols, W. H. Brown 
Nichols— R. F. and Fox Nichols, W. H. Brown 
Planters and Jones— Tom and Frank Jones, Buck White 
Va.-Carolina — R. C. Simmons, Sr. 
Simmons — R. C. Simmons, Sr. 

Reidsville (one set buyers) 225,000 sq. ft. floor space 

Browns— G. E. Smith, P. D. McMichael, R. Roberts, D. Huffines 
Farmers— G. E. Smith, P. D. McMichael, R. Roberts, D. Huffines 
Leader— A. P. Sands, A. G. Irvin, J. L. Pinnix 
Watts— A. P. Sands, A. G. Irvin, J. L. Pinnix 
Smothers— T. B. Smothers 

Roxboro (one set buyers) 147,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Farmers — Lindsay Wagstaff, R. L. Hester 

Hyco— W. R. Jones, R. W. Lunsford, Geo. Walker, F. J. Hester 
Pioneer— H. W. Winstead, Jr., J. H. Merritt, D. L. Whitfield 
Planters No. 1 and 2— T. O. Pass 
Winstead— T. T. and Elmo Mitchell 

Stoneville (one set buyers) 84,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Browns — O. P. Joyce, Roy Carter 
Farmers — F. A. Brown, P. M. Moorefield 



25 



Piedmont — J. J. Webster, G. D. Rakestraw 
Slate Bros.— J. O., B. R., B.M., and C. A. Slate 

Winston-Salem (four sets buyers) 650,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Brown — R. W. Newsome, W. B. Simpson 
Carolina — H. M. Bouldin, G. H. Robertson 
Dixie— Floyd Joyce, W. G. Sheets, J. R. Pell 
Farmers — Floyd Joyce, W. G. Sheets, J. R. Pell 

Glenn and Banner— S. H. Price, C. T. Glenn, D. L. Harris, C. H. Dalton 
Liberty— R. T. and R. F. Carter, M. M. Joyner 
Peper No. 1 and 2 — F. D. Peper 
Piedmont— B. E. Cock, C. B. Strickland 

Planters— Foss Smithdeal, Joe Sharp, W. A. Harkey, Clint Smithdeal 
Taylor— Paul Taylor, J. H. Dyer 

N. C. BURLEY BELT 

Asheville (one set buyers) 425,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Carolina — Farmers Federation, Max Roberts, Mgr. 
Farmers — Farmers Federation, Max Roberts, Mgr. 
Dixie No. 1 and 2 — Taft Bass 

Planters No. 1 and 2— J. W. Stewart, Fred D. Cockfield 
Bernard-Walker No. 1 and 2 — James E. Walker, Mgr. 
Haneys and Walker — James E. Walker, Mgr. 

Boone (one set buyers) 150,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Mountain Burley No. 1 and 2 — R. C. Coleman 
Farmers Burley — R. C. Coleman 

West Jefferson (one set buyers) 90,000 sq. ft. floor space 
Tri-State Burley — Steve and Rex Taylor 
Planters— E. L. Dudley, Bob Dale 



26 



Regulations Governing Weighing of Leaf 
Tobacco in Warehouses 

ARTICLE 11. LEAF TOBACCO 

§6-34 Tobacco Offered for Sale. When leaf tobacco is placed on the 
floor of a leaf tobacco auction warehouse in a line or row according: to 
custom in said warehouse, preceding- the actual sale, such act on the part 
of any person, firm, or corporation shall be construed as offering the to- 
bacco for sale, and that the tobacco is offered for sale and thus becomes 
subject to the conditions set forth in G. S. 81-43.1. 

§6-35 Baskets. No basket shall be used in a tobacco auction ware- 
house which deviates from the established average weight by a weight in 
excess of one pound either over or under. The average weight shall be estab- 
lished by weighing 100 baskets, picked at random, and this weight divided 
by 100 The said average basket weight shall be posted on the scale or 
scale house in a plain and conspicious place. Any and every basket in 
said warehouse which does not conform to this requirement shall be removed 
from the premises or destroyed by the operators of the warehouse. Each 
warehouse shall be equipped with a metal test weight which shall be equal 
in weight to the established and posted average weight of basket, baid 
test weight shall be used by the weigh master in making allowance for 




Tobacco warehouse scales are tested by inspectors of the NCDA Division 
of Weights and Measures. 

27 



the basket when setting total tare on tare beam of scale and thereby protect 
himself in the issuing of weight certificate provided for in G. S 81-40 and 
81-41. 

§6-36. Warehouse Trucks. All warehouse trucks shall be of the same 
weight, and any weight needed to bring about this result shall be perma- 
nently attached by a bolt. The said weight shall be painted, stenciled, 
or otherwise conspiciously marked on each truck and shall also be posted 
on scale or scale house. 

§6-37. "Even Pound" System. As long as the "even pound" system is 
used in the buying and selling of tobacco on the warehouse floor, the 
nearest "even pound" on indicator dial, or beam shall be used. 

§6-38. Variations in Weight. Whereas leaf tobacco which is offered for 
sale or sold at auction on a leaf tobacco warehouse floor is a commodity 
which may increase or decrease in weight due to atmospheric conditions, 
it therefore becomes necessary to reckon with such variation and a tol- 
erance not exceeding two per cent or six pounds (whichever is less) shall 
be considered a reasonable variation on any basket of tobacco which is be- 
ing offered for sale or sold or delivered; however, such variation shall 
be determined by the facts in each case and applicable to each individual 
basket of tobacco; provided that in no case shall any allowance be made 
for variation in weight due to atmospheric conditions on baskets of tobacco 
erroneously weighed or illegally packed; and provided further that any 
claim for an allowance in excess of two per cent or six pounds (which- 
ever is less) shall be made to the weighmaster in accordance with Chapter 
81, Sec. 44 of the General Statutes, and such claim shall be declared by 
the claimant to the seller as soon as practicable after any such discrepancy 
in weight becomes apparent. 

§6-39. Violations. Any weigh master or other person, firm, or corpo- 
ration who takes, or attempts to take, advantage of these variations or 
tolerances, in the issuing of a weight certificate, or in the setting of tare 
beam on scale when making allowance for weight of truck and average 
weight of baskets, shall be guilty of misrepresenting the quality in fact 
and subject to penalty as set forth in Sections 81-18 and 81-40 of the Gen- 
eral Statutes. 

§6-40. Custodian of Tobacco. It shall not be construed that these varia- 
tions and tolerances do in any way relieve the custodian of the tobacco of 
his responsibility or liability as referred to in G. S. 81-43 and 81-43.1. 

(Approved by Board of Agriculture September 11, 1939; amended July 
25, 1946; and amended October 17, 1949). 

(Authority: G. S. 81-2; G. S. 81-2.1). 



28 



Regulations Governing Tobacco Curer 
Installations 

The following sections of the Rules, Regulations, Definitions and Stand- 
ards of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture, were promulgated 
by the State Board of Agriculture, under authority of G. S. 81-14.7, which 
provides that "all heating units and/or curing assemblies offered for sale 
or sold in this state, intended for use in curing the so-called flue-cured 
tobacco . . . shall bear a label or seal of approval authorized by the board 
of agriculture . . . ." 

ARTICLE 15. HEATING UNIT FOR CURING TOBACCO 
§6-49. Type Approval. Any distributor desiring to sell such a heating 
unit, or curer, shall first obtain approval of such sale, or distribution, 
from the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures by setting up and 
demonstrating said heating unit, or curer, at some place agreed upon by 
the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures and the manufacturer, 
or distributor, preferably at the Tobacco Experiment Station at Oxford, 
North Carolina. The manufacturer, or distributor, shall also furnish the 
State Superintendent of Weights and Measures specifications covering said 
heating unit, or curer, together with instructions on how same shall be 
installed and used in order to reduce to a minimum the fire hazard asso- 
ciated with such use. 

§6-50. Label of Approval. Such heating units, or curers, as approved 
in accordance with Section 6-49, shall have permanently attached thereto 
a label mearing the following statement, or its equivalent: "North Caro- 
lina Approved Type, Permit No " 

§6-51. Minimum Safety Requirements. Every blaze, or flame, of fire 
emanating from any outlet of inflammable fuel, regardless of size.shape, 
or heat intensity, shall be considered as being hazardous; and every heat- 
ing device, or unit, generally known as a curer, which uses fire as a means 
of generating heat, shall be subject to the following specifications, which 
specifications shall be known as minimum safety requirements pursuant 
to the reduction of fire hazard in the so-called flue-cured tobacco barns; 
and all curers offered for sale, or sold, after September 1, 1947, shall con- 
form to said requirements, to wit: 

(a) Whenever the term "curer" is used in these specifications, it shall 
be construed as meaning one or more heating units, or stoves, or 
chambers, or machines, or devices, used, or intended to be used, as a 
means of generating heat sufficient for curing so-called flue-cured 
tobacco, in a tobacco barn not larger than twenty-two feet square, 
or its equivalent in square feet. 

(b) Each curer and/or assembly installed in the so-called flue cured 
tobacco barn, after September 1, 1947, shall have a positive cut-off 
at 200° F. The instrument for responding to said temperature shall 
be placed directly over heating unit or at the place recommended 
by the manufacturer. 

29 



(c) No curer, or flue, or attachment thereto shall be installed in a to- 
bacco barn nearer to inflammable material than three inches for 
each 100°F. surface temperature in excess of 500°F. with a mini- 
mum distance of three inches. 

(d) The flame, or blaze, or fire resulting from the combustion of the 
fuel shall be limited to, or confined in, the combustion chamber 
of the curer. The combustion chamber is that area, or confined space, 
where the fuel is admitted, ignited, and burned; and the chamber 
shall be built of such material and dimension as to withstand the 
results of such combustion without cracking:, buckling, melting, or 
burning- through. 

(e) All curers, or parts conected thereto, exposed to falling tobacco, 
which at any time during the curing process, reaches a tempera- 
ture of 500 "F. or more, must be protected by a guard of such 
strength and rigidity as to withstand ordinary abuse and not punc- 
ture or become distorted by a falling stick of tobacco, and said guard 
shall not go above 500 °F. 

(f) The maximum oil burning capacity of each heating unit, or curer, 
which uses oil as a fuel, shall be tested, rated, and labeled, in cubic 
centimeters per minute at 78°F. with pressure head not exceeding 
seven feet. 

(g) Each heating unit, or curer, which uses oil as a fuel, except the 
pressure atomizer type, which shall have some other type of safety 
control, shall be equipped with an automatic float control valve 
set and sealed to flow not more than the maximum burning capacity 
of heating unit, or curer, to which it is connected at 78 °F. under 
normal fuel head built into the float control valve and said valve 
shall be labeled showing its maximum flow capacity in C.C.'s per 
minute and the top of the fuel supply tank shall not be more than 
seven feet above the level line of the float control valve. 

(h) All heating units, or curers, using oil as a fuel, except pressure 
burners, shall be installed at such a level, in relation to float con- 
trol valve or over-flow pipe, as to make imposible an overflow of 
fuel from the combustion chamber into the barn. 

(i) Every curer, or heating unit, operated with fuel under pressure 
shall be equipped with automatic means which will cut off fuel 
supply should the fuel fail to ignite upon entering combustion cham- 
ber, or should ignition fail while fuel is being supplied. 

(j) No stoker, or parts thereof, shall be sold, offered for sale, or in- 
stalled, that will not, during continuous running for the period of 
one hour, completely burn its alleged maximum rated capacity of 
fuel. 

§6-52. Expense Involved. All expenses incurred in setting up and 
demonstrating said unit, or curer, including hotel and traveling expenses 
of the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures, or his deputy, shall 
be borne by the manufacturer, or distributor, of heating unit, or curer, 
submitted. The manufacturer, or distributor, shall also obtain from the 
office of the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures the label 
referred to in Section 6-50 at an expense of One Dollar ($1.00) each in 

30 



lots of ten (10) or more, and attach one to each heating unit, or curer, 
before offering for sale, or distributing. 

§6-53. Instruction to Accompany Heating Unit of Curer. Every heat- 
ing unit offered for sale, or sold, shall be tagged with a double postcard 
which shall bear the following information, or its equivalent: "This heat- 
ing unit, or curer, is manufactured and sold by (manufacturer's name and 

address)', Permit No , installed by (name of person or contractor 

making installation), in my barn (name of owner), located on Highway, 

or R 0a d , miles from town." One of the 

said postcards shall be mailed by the purchaser, or his agent, to the office 
of the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures, Raleigh, North Caro- 
lina, immediately upon installation of said heating unit, or curer, and the 
other card shall be sent to the manufacturer. The said unit, or curer, shall 
also be accompanied with a set of instructions on how to install and use, 
completely assembled, in a so-called flue cured tobacco barn, together 
with a picture of such installation; and the instructions and picture shall 
be framed with a glass or other transparent cover suitable for screwing on 
the tobacco barn door or some other prominent safe place about the barn. 
The manufacturer, or distributor, shall keep a record of to whom each 
heating unit, or curer, is sold and permit number. 
(Adopted by Board of Agriculture May 29, 1947; Amended August 7, 1947) 




The NCDA Weights and Measures Division is charged with administra- 
tion of the law and regulations governing tobacco curer installations. In 
the picture above an inspector is checking the temperature of an exposed 
pipe. 

31 



OUTLETS FOR U. S. TOBACCO 



BIL. LBS. 



Cigarettes 

Cigars 

Smoking, chewing, snuff 

Exports 




1924-28 I9343t 
AV. AV. 




1947 1948 1949 1950 



<$AL!S WEIGHT FQUIV/Uff.